‘’I would also like to quote Emma Goldman when closing this first chapter. Every movement that aims at the destruction of faulty existing systems and the replacement thereof with something more advanced, has followers who in theory stand for the most radical ideas, but who, nevertheless, in their every-day practice, are like the average Philistine, feigning respectability and clamouring for the good opinion of their opponents.’’
Women emancipation is the effort to secure equal rights for women and to remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions, and behavioural patterns. Nelson Mandela once said, ‘’Freedom cannot be achieved unless women have been emancipated from all forms of oppression’’ This freedom is the basis upon which the mass and the individual, the true democrat and the true individuality, man and woman, can meet without antagonism and opposition.
The former way of thinking, in terms of which women were relegated to second place, continued unchallenged for centuries.3 The social norms have kept women in a shell for decades and in some cases has silenced the voice of a woman, leading to very few women self-actualizing. Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in different ways. The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldsteinfor, as the motive to realize one's full potential. Expressing one's creativity, quest for spiritual enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, and the desire to give to and/or positively transform society are examples of self-actualization.
The difference with the 21st century is that both male and female have same expectations about life professionally and at home. Gender diversity and inclusion are therefore no longer a female issue, it is everyone’s issue. How can we have a conservation when a number of male listen to defend the system the minute one brings the issue of women empowerment or equality? These patterns are however not abstract theory but do have a historical background, a genesis which is interrogated in the paragraphs that follow.
The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and for the same legal rights as men. The psyche of democracy that has been embraced in the digital age makes us to think that freedom means no control, whereas freedom means being free to be your authentic self-irrespective of gender, to self-actualize from the soul.
To do justice in this section we will have to first dissect the history of Socio-economic landscape of my country, South Africa in order to understand the opposition and antagonism to gender equality. In 1867 diamonds were discovered in Kimberly and gold in 1886 in Witwatersrand. This discovery made a huge change in the developing South African economy and socio status of the country. Black men left their families to come and work in mines in Kimberly and Witwatersrand. They were more of the cheap labour force and with no shares in these mines. Black women were then left at home raising up children. This dissembled the family structure of most black families as the head of the family was not at home almost for 6-12 months and in those days communication was difficult. We started to see the rise of children born outside marriage as these black males will start a new family in the city. Although black women were left alone it was a taboo for them to start new families. This socio status set a trend or was the foundation of segregated black families. This is one of the inheritance that South Africa received from this system.